Previous Page      Full Application Library 

Muscle (To Repair)

Bryan Applications, M

There are three kinds of muscle in the body, namely, striped, voluntary or skeletal muscle, plain or un-striped involuntary muscle, and the heart muscle, which is a striped but involuntary muscle. A striped muscle is one whose fibers show cross-striping on microscopical examination, and a voluntary muscle is one which is under the control of the will.

A skeletal muscle is described as having an origin and an insertion. Thus, the biceps muscle has its origin on the shoulder blade and is inserted into the radius, a bone of the forearm. The origin of the muscle may be direct, that is, the fleshy fibers may be attached to the periosteum, or fibrous covering, of the bone, but, on the other hand, the attachment may be through a tendon or an aponeurosis. The same applies to the insertion; this may be into another bone, or something else, the eyeball, for example.

The fleshy part of a muscle is generally referred to as the belly of the muscle. In some, as in the muscles of the forearm, this is prolonged into a long, slender tendon of insertion. Muscles are of various shapes. Some, like the biceps, are rather spindle-shaped, others, like the sartorius, form long, narrow ribbons, and others still, like those in the anterior abdominal wall, form broad, thin sheets.

A muscle is enclosed in a sheath and is found to be made up of bundles separated by connective tissue. The bundles are composed of fibers about one inch long and 1/5000 inch across, each fiber being en. closed in an elastic sheath, known as the sarcolemma. Plain muscle, which is composed of long, spindle-shaped cells, forming fibers which are arranged in bundles, is found in the walls of the hollow organs, that is, the alimentary tract, the ureters and bladder, the fallopian tubes and womb, and so on. It also occurs in the walls of the trachea and bronchial tubes and in blood vessels, besides many other situations. The fibers commonly surround a tube or hollow organ, but some organs have longitudinal fibers as well, and in the stomach there are also oblique fibers.

Heart muscle is composed of striped cells, forming fibers which are carried round the chambers.

Muscle possesses irritability, that is, it responds to some kind of irritation. Normally, the excitation is nervous energy, but an electric current, the striking of a muscle, and other causes will also evoke a response. This takes the form of contraction; a muscle fiber, and therefore the whole muscle, becomes shorter and thicker in response to the excitation. In the case of a voluntary muscle the shortening causes movement of the bone or anything else to which the muscle is attached. Thus, the contraction of the biceps causes the forearm to move towards the arm.

In a hollow organ or tube the shortening of circular fibers narrows the lumen, or cavity, and by a rhythmical series of such contractions in the bowel the contents are pushed forward; contraction causes the emptying of such organs as the bladder or the gall bladder. Contraction of the heart fibers causes the emptying of the chamber round which the contracting fibers are spread.

It will be appreciated, therefore, that muscles perform a large volume of work. They are enabled to do this by the oxidation, or combustion, of sugar supplied to them by the blood, of which they receive a generous supply. But just as the combustion of fuel may not only supply energy for an engine, but also heat, so the combustion of sugar in a muscle liberates heat, so the blood coming from a muscle is hotter than that which goes into it. This, in fact, is the chief source of the heat of the body, and explains why a person who is cold desires to move about.

Fatigue supervenes sooner or later when a muscle is being continuously exercised, and is due rather to the accumulation of waste products, and, notably, sarcolactic acid, than to the using up of available fuel. Massage, by improving the circulation through a muscle and washing out this acid, helps to remove the sense of fatigue.

The nerve fibers coming to skeletal muscles are derived from cells in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and leave by the anterior root of a spinal nerve, while other fibers pass from the muscle into the spinal cord. The nerve supply of plain muscle is connected with the sympathetic nervous system.

Although an effort of will and a consequent impulse along a motor nerve is required to make a skeletal muscle come into action, there is some steady nervous influence constantly on the muscle, as this is always ready to contract, a state of preparedness described as tone.

A nervous impulse to a muscle may have an inhibiting effect instead of an activating one. Thus, when one desires lo bend the arm at the elbow, impulses must go along the nerves to the muscles on the front of the limb calling them into action, but other impulses must pass along nerves to muscles on the back of the limb, preventing contraction, and allowing them to stretch.

Besides controlling the movements of a muscle, the nerve cells in the spinal cord which send it the motor fibers also control its nutrition, and if the cells become diseased, or the fibers are cut, or cease to carry impulses, the muscle wastes or atrophies. In infantile paralysis, inflammation causes the destruction of such cells, and the wasting of the affected muscles may be very marked.

Injuries and diseases of the muscles:

Overstretching of a muscle is described as a strain. There is pain and stiffness. The muscle should be rested, and, if necessary, hot or cold applications will relieve pain. Early massage and gentle movements are necessary. A muscle may be ruptured by violent stretching when it is contracted, or by a blow when it is in this condition.

The severed fibers contract and leave a gap which is more evident if an effort is made to move the muscle, the severed ends gathering into knots. The limb should be placed in such a position as to put the muscle at rest and shorten it as much as possible.

Thus, if the large muscle on the front of the thigh is ruptured, the limb should be straightened out and the foot elevated on a high pillow. It may be necessary for a doctor to cut down on the muscle, however, and fasten the ends together by stitching. If the sheath of a muscle is torn, the muscle tends to project through the rent, particularly when in action; this is called a muscle hernia.

The tendon of some muscles works along a definite groove, and may become displaced from this groovy through violence. This accident, which is popularly described as a “rick,” causes pain and stiffness, and it may be possible to feel that the tendon is in an abnormal position. The malposition must be rectified by a doctor, and the limb kept at rest, probably from six to eight week. It may be necessary to operate, however.

Inflammatory conditions of muscles:

Inflammation of a muscle, or myositis, may be due to one of the causes of inflammation (q.v.) in any situation, and if this cause is a microbe an abscess may result. The general symptoms and treatment of these conditions are treated as is appropriate to each respectively. A chronic myositis of a Tuberculosis nature is amplified in a psoas abscess, and syphilis is another infective cause of chronic myositis. A long-continued and frequently repeated mechanical irritation of the muscle or tendon may result in fibrosis and ossification of muscle; rider’s muscle is an instance of this.

A rare disease in which there is a progressive ossification of muscles all over the body is called myositis ossificans; its cause is unknown. The invasion of muscles by the trichina worm or by a hydatid also causes chronic inflammation. Muscular rheumatism is inflammation in the connective tissue mingled throughout a muscle-a fibrositis. It is not common for a tumor to originate in muscle, but a simple tumor, such as a lipoma or angioma, or a sarcoma, which is a malignant tumor, may do so. A tumor composed of muscle is called a myoma.

A painful spasm of a muscle is usually referred to as cramp. Pain in a muscle without obvious signs of inflammation is spoken, of as myalgia; it is generally due to rheumatism. An intensive use of muscles leads to an increase in their size, or hypertrophy (q.v.). Disease, on the other hand, causes a diminution in size, or atrophy.

As explained above, in connection with the innervation of muscle, disease in the nerve cells controlling a muscle or interruption of the impulses through the nerve by cutting it or by disease, which is usually neuritis, also results in atrophy.

There may be a progressive muscular atrophy involving all parts of the body. The disease known as pseudohypertrophic muscular paralysis is a primary disease of muscle, and is of a degenerative character. The hypertrophy is due mainly to a large accumulation of fat, the muscles themselves being very weak. See: Backache.. Rheumatism..

Application and treatment:

In heart problems treat both sides at once to balance energy. Apply electrode pads to arteries and to colon and intestines during the course of sessions. See: heart.

Arm muscles and leg muscles: Apply pads to outside of scapula bone on lateral edge of shoulder blade. For legs use pads also about 4 inches below kneecap; very severe dizziness and lung problems have been entirely dissipated on these areas. It can also affect the entire half of the body and head on one side and then on the other side.

Muscle (To Repair)

The repair of muscles requires a good high protein diet. Amplitude settings should be kept moderate and pain from excess output should be kept to a minimum. Supplement direct pad placements with standard treatment sessions via water pans every 72 hours to speed healing.